1. javascript

Intro to JavaScript

JavaScript is a programming language that is commonly used to add interactivity and dynamic functionality to websites. It is a client-side language, which means that it is executed by the user's web browser, rather than on the web server. This allows for a more responsive and personalized user experience, as the user's actions can be immediately reflected on the page without needing to refresh the page.

It's an object-oriented language, based on the concept of objects and their interactions. Objects are collections of related data and functions, and they can be used to represent real-world entities, such as users, products, or events.

JavaScript is also a loosely-typed language that does not require variables to be explicitly declared with a specific data type. This allows for greater flexibility, but it can also make the code more difficult to read and maintain.

One of the key features of JavaScript is its support for event-driven programming. This means that the code can specify actions to be performed in response to certain events, such as a user clicking on a button or hovering over an element on the page. This allows for a more interactive and intuitive user experience.

Another important aspect of JavaScript is its ability to manipulate the Document Object Model (DOM). The DOM is a representation of the structure of a web page, and it can be accessed and modified using JavaScript. This allows for a wide range of possibilities, such as changing the styles or content of page elements, adding or removing elements, or even creating animations.

Use Cases and How to Get Started

JavaScript can also be used in a variety of other contexts. For example, it can be used to develop desktop and mobile applications, thanks to frameworks such as Electron and Cordova. It can also be used for server-side programming, through technologies such as Node.js.

One of the key advantages of JavaScript is its widespread availability and support. All modern web browsers include a built-in JavaScript engine that can execute code, and there are many tools and resources available for learning and working with the language.

To start working with JavaScript, you will need a text editor to write your code and a web browser to run it. Many text editors, such as Sublime Text or Atom, have features specifically designed for working with JavaScript, such as syntax highlighting and code completion.

Once you have a text editor set up, you can begin writing your JavaScript code. The basic syntax of the language is similar to other programming languages, and it includes concepts such as variables, functions, and control flow.

To add JavaScript to a web page, you can include the code directly in the HTML using a <script> tag. The code can be placed either in the <head> or <body> of the page, and it will be executed when the page loads.

Alternatively, you can store your JavaScript code in a separate file and include it in the HTML using a <script> tag with a src attribute that points to the file. This is a good practice as it keeps the code organized and separates it from the content of the page.

Once you have added your JavaScript code to a page, you can test it by opening the page in a web browser and using the developer tools to view the console output. This will show any messages or errors generated by the code, which can be helpful for debugging and troubleshooting.

Key Concepts

As you continue to learn and work with JavaScript, there are a few key concepts and best practices that you should keep in mind.

First, it is important to understand the difference between declaration and initialization of variables. When you declare a variable, you are simply creating a reference to a value, but you are not yet assigning a value to it. For example:

var x;

In this case, x is declared as a variable, but it has no value yet. To give it a value, you need to initialize it, like this:

var x = 10;

Now, x is initialized with the value 10.

Another important concept in JavaScript is scope. Scope refers to the visibility and accessibility of variables and functions within the code. In JavaScript, there are two types of scope: global and local.

Global scope refers to variables and functions that are defined outside of any function and are therefore available throughout the entire code. Local scope, on the other hand, refers to variables and functions that are defined inside a function and are only available within that function.

For example:

var x = 10; // global scope

function foo() {
    var y = 20; // local scope

In this code, x is a global variable, while y is a local variable that is only available inside the foo function.

It is important to write clean and readable code. This means using clear and descriptive variable and function names, and organizing your code into logical blocks and structures. This will make it easier for you and others to understand and maintain your code.

Reusable, Modular Functions

As you continue to work with JavaScript, you may find that you need to use certain features or patterns frequently. To avoid repeating yourself and to make your code more modular and reusable, you can use functions.

A function is a block of code that is defined once and can be called multiple times from different parts of your code. Functions can take arguments, which are values that are passed to the function when it is called, and they can return a result, which is a value that the function produces.

For example, this is a simple function that takes two numbers as arguments and returns their sum:

function add(x, y) {
    return x + y;

To call this function and use its result, you can use the function name followed by the arguments in parentheses, like this:

var result = add(10, 20);

This will call the add function with the arguments 10 and 20, and it will assign the returned value of 30 to the result variable.

In addition to defining your own functions, JavaScript also provides many built-in functions that you can use for common tasks. For example, the Math.max() function can be used to find the maximum value of a list of numbers, and the Date.now() function can be used to get the current date and time.

Using functions can greatly improve the structure and readability of your code, and it can also make it easier to reuse and maintain.


In addition to functions, another important concept in JavaScript is object-oriented programming (OOP). As mentioned earlier, JavaScript is an object-oriented language, which means that it is based on the concept of objects and their interactions.

An object is a collection of related data and functions that represent a real-world entity or concept. For example, you could create an object to represent a user, with properties such as name, email, and age, and methods such as login() and logout().

In JavaScript, objects are created using the object constructor or the class keyword. For example, this is how you could create an object to represent a user:

// using the object constructor
var user = new Object();
user.name = "John Doe";
user.email = "[email protected]";
user.age = 35;
user.login = function() {
    // code to log the user in
user.logout = function() {
    // code to log the user out

// using the class keyword
class User {
    constructor() {
        this.name = "John Doe";
        this.email = "[email protected]";
        this.age = 35;

    login() {
        // code to log the user in

    logout() {
        // code to log the user out

In both cases, the resulting user object has the same properties and methods, but the class syntax provides a more concise and organized way of defining the object.

Once you have created an object, you can use it to store and manipulate data, and to call its methods. For example:

var user = new User();
console.log(user.name); // "John Doe"

Object-oriented programming allows you to model real-world concepts and entities in your code, and it provides a natural way of organizing and interacting with data.


In addition to objects, another important concept in object-oriented programming is inheritance. Inheritance is a way of defining a relationship between two objects, where one object (the child or derived object) inherits properties and methods from another object (the parent or base object).

In JavaScript, inheritance is implemented using the extends keyword. This allows you to create a child class that inherits from a parent class, and that can override or add to the parent's properties and methods.

For example, this is how you could define a Admin class that inherits from the User class defined earlier:

class Admin extends User {
    constructor() {
        super(); // call the parent constructor
        this.isAdmin = true; // add a new property

    deleteUser(user) {
        // code to delete the given user

In the demo above, the Admin class inherits all the properties and methods of the User class, and it adds a new property and method of its own.

Inheritance allows you to reuse and extend existing code, and it provides a natural way of modeling real-world relationships between objects.

Asynchronous Programming

Another important concept in JavaScript is asynchronous programming. Asynchronous programming refers to the ability of the language to handle multiple tasks concurrently, without blocking or waiting for each task to complete.

In JavaScript, this is achieved through the use of callback functions and promises. A callback function is a function that is passed as an argument to another function, and that is called by that function when a certain event or operation has completed. For example:

function doSomething(callback) {
    // perform some task
    callback(); // call the callback function when the task is done

doSomething(function() {
    // code to be executed when doSomething() is done

In this code, the doSomething function takes a callback function as an argument, and it calls that function when its task has completed. This allows the calling code to be notified when the task is done, and to take appropriate action.

Promises are another way of dealing with asynchronous operations in JavaScript. A promise is an object that represents the eventual result of an asynchronous operation. It allows the code to be notified when the operation has completed, and it provides methods for handling the result or any errors that may occur.

For example:

function doSomethingAsync() {
    return new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
        // perform some asynchronous task
        if (/* task was successful */) {
            resolve(/* result */); // resolve the promise with the result
        } else {
            reject(/* error */); // reject the promise with an error

    .then(function(result) {
        // code to be executed when the promise is resolved
    .catch(function(error) {
        // code to be executed when the promise is rejected

This example illustrates how the doSomethingAsync function returns a promise that is resolved with the result of the asynchronous operation, or rejected with an error if the operation failed. The calling code can use the then and catch methods of the promise to handle the result or any errors that may occur.

Asynchronous programming is an essential aspect of modern JavaScript, and it allows the language to handle complex and concurrent tasks efficiently.

JS Modules

You may find that you need to perform certain tasks or operations on a regular basis. To avoid repeating yourself and to make your code more modular and reusable, you can use modules.

A module is a piece of JavaScript code that is organized into a self-contained unit, with its own variables, functions, and dependencies. Modules can be imported and used by other code, and they can export their own functionality for others to use.

In JavaScript, modules are implemented using the import and export keywords. These keywords allow you to import the exports of one module into another module, and to export the functionality of your own module for others to use.

For example, this is how you could create a util module that contains utility functions, and use it in another module:

// util.js
export function add(x, y) {
    return x + y;

export function subtract(x, y) {
    return x - y;

// main.js
import { add, subtract } from "./util";

console.log(add(10, 20)); // 30
console.log(subtract(10, 20)); // -10

In this code, the util module exports the add and subtract functions, and the main module imports them using the import keyword. This allows the main module to use the functions from the util module without having to duplicate the code.

Modules provide a clean and organized way of organizing and sharing code in JavaScript, and they are an essential part of modern JavaScript development.